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How to treat periodontitis?

Periodontal is a complex of tissues that holds the tooth in the well. And periodontitis is an inflammatory disease that affects these tissues. Without treatment, it can lead to severe pain, loosening and loss of teeth. Let's talk about the forms and treatment of periodontitis.

Published at

April 26, 2024

How to detect the disease? 

The difficulty of diagnosing the disease is that at the initial stage of periodontal inflammation, the patient is not bothered by pain. Therefore, the condition often goes unnoticed, and the patient does not go to the dentist. In some patients, mild, barely noticeable bleeding of the gums can be detected. But others have severe inflammation, mobility and tooth loss, bad breath and suppuration. 

We have collected the main symptoms of periodontitis: 

  • Swelling, redness of the gums: The gums may look swollen, have a red tinge. And along with edema, increased sensitivity of teeth to temperature changes may occur. 

  • Bleeding gums: Blood when brushing teeth and/or when eating solid food.

  • The appearance of purulent contents: Pus may be released from periodontal pockets.

  • Bad breath: Inflammation and infection sometimes lead to bad breath.

  • Gum prolapse: The gum retreats from the tooth and the appearance of "pockets".

If you notice any signs of periodontitis, make an appointment with a dentist. 

To maintain dental health and an aesthetic smile, undergo a preventive check—up with dentists at Olympus Clinics every six months. Our specialists will identify any dental problems, provide painless treatment, and tell you about effective oral care. 

Why does it occur? 

The most common cause of the disease is infection. But there are other causes of periodontitis: 

  • Problems in oral hygiene: Improper or insufficient brushing of teeth leads to the formation of plaque, which can develop into tartar. Tartar contributes to injury and infection.

  • Smoking: A bad habit increases the risk of periodontitis, as it weakens local immunity and impairs blood supply to tissues.

  • Systemic diseases: Diabetes and immunodeficiency conditions can increase the risk of periodontitis due to decreased immune protection.

  • Dental injuries: Injuries that damage the structure of the tooth or gums. From a hard toothbrush to hard food. Such injuries can contribute to the development of periodontitis. 

  • Aging: With age, gum tissues can lose their elasticity and become more susceptible to infections.

  • Overload of the maxillary system: Due to malocclusion, early tooth loss, bruxism. 

Forms of periodontitis

Acute periodontitis is characterized by the sudden onset of symptoms: soreness, swelling, redness of the gums, possibly even with the release of pus from the periodontal pocket. 

Chronic periodontitis develops slowly, may be asymptomatic or with minimal manifestations, such as periodic discomfort or swelling of the gums. 

The development of periodontitis goes through several degrees: 

The easy stage. The alveolar bone decreases by a third of its normal size, and the depth of the periodontal pockets is up to three and a half millimeters. The patient experiences discomfort, swelling and slight bleeding of the gums appear, as well as bad breath. On examination, a soft plaque and tartar are visible. The teeth are motionless.

The middle stage. Periodontal pockets are up to five millimeters, and the bone decreases by half. Painful sensations and bleeding of the gums increase, pus is released from the periodontal pockets. At this stage, there is moderate mobility of the teeth, their displacement and the appearance of gaps between them. Teeth become hypersensitive to temperature changes.

The difficult stage. Periodontal pockets become deeper than five millimeters, bone tissue decreases intensively. The progression of the disease leads to the destruction of the jaw bone until complete resorption. It is characterized by acute pain, swelling and bleeding gums. In advanced cases, the teeth become mobile in all directions, noticeably shift and may even fall out.

"I want to go to the dentist less often. What is needed for this?"

We have collected tips for the prevention of periodontitis: 

Observe oral hygiene. Brush your teeth twice a day — morning and evening. And also clean carefully so as not to injure the gums.
Rinse your mouth after each meal. 
Give up cigarettes and alcohol.
Try to eat fewer foods with high sugar content.
Do not delay the treatment of caries if the dentist has detected it. 
Come to the dentist for professional oral hygiene twice a year.
Eat more fruits and take vitamins if there are no contraindications.
Measure your blood sugar level regularly.

Diagnosis and treatment of periodontitis in Olympus Clinics

What do dentists at Olympus Clinics do to detect an inflammatory disease?

Examination: The doctor carefully examines your oral cavity to assess the condition of your gums, teeth and surrounding tissues. 
X-rays: X-rays can show the condition of the bone tissue around the teeth. With periodontitis, bone tissue can be destroyed, as can be seen in the picture.
Measuring periodontal pockets: Using a periodontal probe, the dentist measures the depth of the pocket between the gum and the tooth. An increase in the depth of the pocket is a sign of the progression of periodontitis.
And how is periodontitis treated?
With periodontitis, it is important to cure it in the initial stages, as it progresses rapidly, affecting more and more tissues. If you start the disease, then the teeth will become mobile and begin to fall out easily. Then the beauty of the smile will have to be restored by prosthetics. In addition, one of the complications of periodontitis is the spread of inflammation throughout the body and a deterioration in the general well—being of the patient. What do the dentists of Olympus Clinics do to preserve the aesthetic dentition and the health of the patient?
The first step is to eliminate the source of infection. The doctor performs professional oral hygiene to remove plaque and tartar. Sometimes the doctor prescribes antibacterial therapy.

To reduce inflammation, the dentist may prescribe anti-inflammatory and antiseptic medications that need to be rinsed or applied to the gums. In case of severe periodontitis, the doctor may prescribe antibiotics.

If the pockets are too deep, surgical treatment of periodontitis may be necessary. Curettage is an operation performed using local anesthesia. The dentist removes plaque and tartar from the dental pockets. After curettage, the doctor disinfects the pockets to heal and reduce inflammation.

At the first appointment, the dentist will tell you about the stage, degree of inflammation and make a treatment plan. Procedures for the treatment and prevention of periodontitis in Olympus Clinics are painless. But if you have stomatophobia (fear of dentists), you can perform the procedure under sedation. And our dentists also teach patients how to clean their teeth properly. They will also tell you which brush and paste to choose, how to replenish your oral hygiene kit.

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